Rabies vaccine is an inactivated virus vaccine that is used for active immunisation against rabies. The pre-exposure prophylaxis vaccine simplifies rabies management by eliminating the need for Rabies Immune Globulin (RIG) and decreasing the number of doses of vaccine needed. Secondly, it offers partial immunity to persons whose post-exposure prophylaxis vaccination is delayed & also when the exposure is unrecognized. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) consists of a dose of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) and rabies vaccine. It is intramuscularly administrated.
Rabies are transmitted from animals to humans & invades the nervous system of mammals. The first prodromal phase includes itching or neuropathic pain around the site of exposure, and non-specific symptoms such as fever, malaise, etc. followed by phase neurologic phase which can be seen in encephalitic form (furious form) that includes psychomotor agitation or hydrophobia and aerophobia with seizures or can progress to paralytic form as a coma ceding paralysis.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis immunization should be offered to rabies researchers, certain laboratory workers and other persons in high-risk groups, such as veterinarians and animal handlers. It should also be considered for persons whose activities bring them into frequent contact with rabies virus or potentially rabid bats, raccoons, skunks, cats, dogs, or other species at risk for having rabies. In addition, some international travellers might be candidates for pre-exposure vaccination if they are likely to come in contact with animals. It is also recommended for children living in or visiting countries where exposure to rabid animals is a constant threat. The essential components of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis are wound treatment and, for previously unvaccinated persons, the administration of both human rabies immune globulin (RIG) and four dosage of vaccines with the exception of persons who have ever previously received complete vaccination regimens. Human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) is the IgG fraction of plasma from human donors who have received multiple doses of rabies vaccine and have high levels of anti-rabies antibody. HRIG is administered once to previously unvaccinated persons exposed to a rabid animal to provide rabies virus neutralizing antibody coverage until the patient responds to vaccination by actively producing virus-neutralizing antibodies.